A new method for directing a group of migratory cells

Some cells, especially metastatic ones, must cooperate with their neighbors to migrate efficiently. By analyzing the early development of the zebrafish embryo, scientists have identified a new way for cells to cooperate. Each cell, going forward, pins the cell in front of it and shoots it. The latter perceives this traction and uses this information to direct its movement. Thus vectorial information propagates from cell to cell, coordinate relay a together (In set theory, a set intuitively identifies a set…) of cells. The results are published in the journal developmental cell.


a. The axial mesoderm (green) migrates in a directed manner to the embryo (the membrane of other cells visible in red).
Bdirection (In the literal sense, direction refers to or personifies the direction of the east (sunrise…) Migration is the transfer of information from one cell to another Mechanical (In everyday parlance, mechanics is the field of machines, engines, vehicles, organs, etc.). Each cell, during migration, exercises tension (Tension is an extended force). On the front cell, which guides the front cell.
© Arthur Butillon and Nicholas David

Cell migrations are essential for many normal (scarring, regeneration, embryonic development) and pathological (particularly the formation of metastases) processes. Over the past fifteen years, it has become clear that many cell migrations are collective, that is, each cell has need to (Needs at the level of interaction between the individual and the environment. Are…) From its neighbors to commute. However, the mechanisms responsible for these mass migrations are still poorly understood.

Scientists use the early zebrafish embryo as a model system. Being largely transparent, this model makes it possible to accurately follow cell migrations, everything (All is understood as all that exists most often as the world or …) By providing the possibility of physical or genetic manipulation of cells or them environment (Environment is everything that surrounds us. It is all natural elements and…). Focusing on a particular group of cells, the axial mesoderm, they identified an original mode of orientation: to migrate, the cell emits a protrusion forward (an extension of the membrane) which allows it to advance by traction. Therefore, this protrusion leads to the tension of the cell in front of it. This tension in the cell is sensed by the molecular force sensing system, and Caused by (A motor is an electromagnetic device in general used in electrical engineering that is responsible for…) Orientation of the cell, which in turn will emit an anterior protrusion, orienting the cell in front of it. Thus orientation information spreads from one cell to another through the tissue. This mechanism allows a group of cells to orient themselves, without the need for external guidance signals, which could be particularly relevant for cancer cells capable of invading many tissues that do not provide them. probably guidance signals.

At the scale of a group of cells, this mechanism also ensures that cell movement is coordinated: if cells at the back slow down, orientation information is propagated less efficiently, then cells in the front migrate from a less-oriented way, resulting in Slower (a hysteresis signal (of the SNCF type) announces a needle (or several) in an oblique position…) of their global movement. This pattern of cellular guidance is therefore a simple and effective method for coordinating different cell movements and thus ensuring tissue integrity during major cellular movements, such as those that occur during embryonic development.

Animation: Upon excision of the cell protrusion (using a laser), the cell body retracts, indicating that the protrusion was under tension.
© Arthur Boutellon and Nicholas David.

the post:
Guidance by followers ensures long-term coordination of cell migration through the automation of α-catenin.
Boutillon A, Escot S, Elouin A, Jahn D, González-Tirado S, Starruß J, Brusch L, David NB.
DevCell. 2022 May 24. doi: 10.1016 / j.devcel.2022.05.001

Lab
laboratoryVisual (Optics is the branch of physics that deals with light and radiation…) and biological sciences – institute (An institute is a permanent organization established for a specific purpose. It is…) College of Applied Arts Paris (Paris is a French city and the capital of France and the capital of the region…) (CNRS/Inserm/Ecole polytechnique). road (The word “road” is derived from the Latin word (via) rupta, which literally means “the way…) from Saclay. 91128 Paliso Sedex.

Contact
Nicholas David – Researcher (Researcher (researcher) refers to a person whose job it is to conduct research…) CNRS (The National Center for Scientific Research, better known by the acronym CNRS, is the largest…) To the Laboratory of Optics and Biological Sciences – Institut Polytechnique de Paris (CNRS / Inserm / ecole polytechnique) and to the Professor at Ecole polytechnique – nicolas.david at polytechnique.edu

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