Vers davantage de « zoonoses », avec le risque de nouvelles pandémies

Towards more “zoonoses”, with the risk of new epidemics

“The human-animal relationship has become completely unstable,” said Dr. Mike Ryan, head of the emergency department at the World Health Organization (WHO), a few days ago. “The factors for the emergence and amplification of the disease have increased,” he said. We’ve just seen with monkeypox, but not only, he warned.

This monkeypox – ‘monkeypox’ in English – caused by a virus transmitted to humans by infected animals – mostly rodents – is the latest example of the replication of this zoonotic disease.

These are infectious diseases that vertebrates can transmit to humans. Some even end up being specifically human, like Covid-19.

According to the World Organization for Animal Health, approximately 60% of emerging diseases are of animal origin.

They appeared thousands of years ago, since humans have intensified their interaction with animals by domesticating them, they have seen their frequency increase dramatically over the past twenty or thirty years.

troubled ecosystem

In the question, “the intensification of travel, which allows them to spread more quickly and in an uncontrolled way,” confirmed to AFP Marc Elwett, head of the Pathogen Detection Laboratory at the Pasteur Institute.

By occupying increasingly large areas of the world, humans also contribute to ecosystem disruption and encourage transmission of viruses.

Thus, the intensification of cultivation in factories increases the risks of the spread of pathogens among animals. The wildlife trade also increases human exposure to the microbes that they may carry. Deforestation increases the risks of contact between wildlife, pets, and human populations.

“When we deforestation, we reduce biodiversity; we’re losing animals that naturally regulate viruses, allowing them to spread more easily,” Benjamin Roche, a biologist at the Research Institute for Development (IRD) who specializes in zoonoses, explained to AFP. .

A study published in Nature at the end of April warned that climate change will also prompt many animals to flee their ecosystems in search of more livable land. However, by mixing more, the species will transmit more of its viruses, which will promote the emergence of new diseases potentially transmitted to humans.

“We need to improve monitoring in both urban and wild animals so that we can identify when a pathogen jumped from one species to another,” said Gregory Albury, an environmental health specialist at Georgetown University in the US and co-author of the study. . And if the receiving host is urban or close to humans, we should be particularly concerned. »

“Be ready”

The study maps out a future “web” of viruses that move from one species to another and grow as the planet warms.

“Today we have quick and easy investigation tools that allow us to respond quickly if new viruses emerge,” reassured Mark Elwett of the Pasteur Institute. “We are also able to develop vaccines very quickly,” as we have seen with Covid-19.

But it is possible that a whole host of new, potentially dangerous diseases will emerge. “We must be prepared,” warned Eric Pfeffer, a professor specializing in veterinary infectious diseases at the University of Liverpool (UK) and at the International Livestock Research Institute (Kenya).

This means, he says, “focusing on the general health of the population” in remote environments and “studying the ecology of these natural areas better to understand how different species interact.”

Since the beginning of the 2000s, the concept of “One Health” has been put forward: it promotes a multidisciplinary and global approach to health issues with close links between human health, animal health and the environment. The global environmental situation.

In 2021, France also launched the international “Prezode” initiative, which aims to prevent the risks of the emergence of zoonoses and epidemics by strengthening cooperation with the most affected regions of the world.

Daniel Lawler

and Isabelle Tournet / Agence France-Presse

“The human-animal relationship has become completely unstable,” said Dr. Mike Ryan, head of the emergency department at the World Health Organization (WHO), a few days ago. “The factors for the emergence and amplification of the disease have increased,” he said. We’ve just seen it with monkeypox, but not…



#zoonoses #risk #epidemics

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