The skin plays an important role as a protective barrier between the host and the external environment. In recent years, it has been suggested that the skin is the preferential exposure route implicated in the occurrence of food allergies. In this study, gluten-derived products produced by enzymatic hydrolysis (EGlu) or by acid hydrolysis (AcGlu, 1-3) as well as native gluten (UnGlu) were compared for their ability to be sensitized by rat skin and then to induce Food allergy to native gluten by mouth.
Analysis of the properties of different gluten
The enzymatically hydrolyzed product was found to contain small peptides with a peptide size distribution profile different from other acid hydrolyzed gluten extracts. All acid hydrolyzed extracts contain many peptides (amino acid sequences) of widely varying sizes and are often chemically modified. Thus the acidolysis of gluten generated new epitopes while retaining the epitopes initially present in the original gluten.
Strength of sensitivity to gluten products
Native gluten and all other gluten extracts were able to induce sensitization in a dose-dependent manner through the skin of mice. After provoking an oral food allergic reaction, swelling in the ear is observed, characteristic symptoms of an allergic reaction. Allergen markers such as gluten-specific IgE and IgG1 were measured. The study showed that acidolyzed gluten extracts caused higher IgE levels from unmodified or enzymatically hydrolyzed gluten. All extracts were found to induce similar levels of IgG1. The resulting IgE was also able to bind to native gluten, indicating a cross-reaction between modified gluten and native gluten enhancing their suitability for gluten sensitivity and the sensitivity to native gluten using cosmetics containing gluten extracts.
In order to examine the ability of gluten extracts to sensitize gluten-tolerant individuals, rats were previously made tolerant of wheat and then the ability of gluten extracts to break down this tolerance and induce sensitivity was measured. Only acid hydrolyzed gluten extracts were able to sensitize tolerant rats. These acid hydrolyzed extracts are similar to those identified in cosmetics responsible for more than 2,000 cases of wheat allergy in Japan where many patients experienced allergic symptoms after consuming food products containing unmodified wheat. This observation can be explained by the fact that skin sensitivity to modified wheat gluten can induce IgE that is able to react with unmodified gluten and thus cause an allergic reaction after ingestion of the original gluten even in individuals who were previously gluten-tolerant. In fact, acid hydrolyzed gluten extracts contain modified epitopes and native epitopes whose tolerance may be low or incomplete.
In conclusion, this study is a step forward in understanding the phenomenon of cutaneous allergy and induction of food allergy to wheat. In particular, the products derived from the acidic hydrolysis of gluten showed increased sensitization and versatility to activated IgE antibodies. Moreover, the products of acidic hydrolysis of gluten are also capable of causing allergic reactions in wheat-tolerant people.
Scientific partners : A.-SR Ballegaard, J.M. Larsen, CB Madsen, KL Bøgh, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark
FinanceCOST FA1402: Improving the Allergy Risk Assessment Strategy for New Food Proteins (Imparas)
Related Posts : Nutr Food Mall Reese. 2021 December; 65 (23): e2100416. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.202100416. The acidolysis of gluten enhances the skin’s allergenic potential and leads to the diversification of IgE reactivity to unmodified gluten proteins. Anne-Sophie Raven Ballegaard, Laure Castain, Gibe Madura-Larsen, Christian Perras, Clelia Velmen, Daniel Andersen, Charlotte Bernard Madsen, Paula Roncada, Suzanne Bricks, Sandra Daenery Papini, Gabriel Mazocelli, Gregory Bouchaud, Catherine Lindholm Pugh
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