Les batteries n'aiment pas le froid et se vident rapidement en hiver. © Romaset, Adobe Stock

Why do batteries drain faster when it’s cold?

A mobile phone explodes without warning or a car malfunction? Yes, it could be due to low temperatures. But why do batteries discharge faster under these conditions?

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[EN VIDÉO] From Volta to Graphene: The Evolution of Batteries
The most common type of battery is the lithium-ion battery. Several technologies are in the works to replace it.

There are two main elements that you should be aware of in the battery : Electrodes in Physics Chemistry
For physicists, the electrodes are:
On the one hand, parts of electrical appliances (X-ray tube, semiconductor diode, etc.); On the other hand, the connecting elements… “data-image=” https://cdn. futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midoriginal/e/7/8/e78f3568a3_80931_electrode.jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/physics-electrode-2669/ “data- more =” read more “>electrodes and electrolytes. Poles are attention, the term anode is not…”data-image=” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/3/0/7/307697abed_128236_anode-pile .jpg “data-url= “https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chemistry-anode-331/” data-more = “Read More”>Anodeor the negative electrode, attention, the term … “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/0/4/4/044c0a47d5_128247_cathode-pile.jpg “data-url = “https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chemistry-cathode-332/” data-more = “Read More”>cathodeor the positive electrode, and between it Electrons. Provides the passage of electrons from one electrode to anotherenergy Necessary to operate or recharge the device – we will see in a moment that the direction of its rotation is important.

No time to read? Hear the answer in our episode of science or fiction In the subject ! © Futura

But, to spin, the electrons need a medium in which to evolve. Thus, there is between the negative electrode and the anode liquid The “conductor” of electricity is called baptized. Monatomic and polyatomic ions, cations and anions
Ions can be monatomic, if they consist of only one type of atom, or polyatomic…”data-image=” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midoriginal/2/d / 3/2d3b08d8ec_100849_ion-definition.jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chemistry-ion-861/ “data-more =”read more”>ions What is this electrolyte made of? a movementIt is this movement that generates current by spinning electrons. This combination of electrodes and electrolytes makes up the so-called cell which makes it possible to generate power.

A battery is made up of thousands of cells that work together. So when we use our cell phone For example, the electrical circuit in the so-called “closed” state. This means that the anode loses electrons and the cathode will restore them. In other words, it is the phenomenon that makes creation possible Electricity It is enough for you to use your smartphone all day long. On the contrary, when charging the batteryThe chemical process that occurs is reversed: this time the electrical circuit is open, then the electrons leave in the opposite direction.

Batteries that face winter temperatures

All this is a process that has the peculiarity of fully preserving the material. Put together… “data-image=” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/3/6/e/36ebed9601_91947_reaction-chimie.jpg “data-url=” https: // news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chemistry-chemical-reaction-15845/”data-more=”read more”>chimical interaction that lead to the proper functioning of the battery is not necessarily suitable for climate collection extremists. At lower temperatures, the battery will produce much less my neighbour. And for good reason, chemical reactions happen more slowly. The electrolyte loses its ability to, for example, in a homogeneous substance, which is not affected by thickness, the thermal conductivity qualifies the velocity of heat flow, at … “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/physics- Conductivity-2070 / “data-more=”read more”>Delivery. It is more viscous, its potential increases, so the movement of electrons, from one electrode to another, is more complex, and therefore slows down significantly. In this context, the energy consumed mostly generates sufficient heat, physicists call thermoelectric energy. In the international system, it is thus measured in joules (J). The heat corresponds more accurately to the transfer… “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midoriginal/7/3/5/735709801b_92578_chaleur.jpg “data-url =” https : //news.google.com/sciences/definitions/physics-heat-15898/ “data-more =” read more “>the heat Just to run a battery that is draining faster. That’s why it’s best to store your phone in the inner pocket in very cold weather.winter.

If this is not possible for you, know that there are also batteries, called “low temperatures”, that will withstand these conditions. These batteries work thanks to the modification made to one of the electrodes. The anode in lambda phone batteries is a graphite structure consisting of a stack of planes, each consisting of a regular tiling of honeycomb hexagons.
Each carbon atom is attached… “data-image=” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midoriginal/6/1/e/61e27b4cac_50034603_graphite-structure.jpg “data-url=” https: //news.google.com/sciences/definitions/matiere-graphite-3870/ “data-more =” read more “>graphiteBuilding materials, smart materials, environmental materials…
A… “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midoriginal/6/4/8/648b91afa7_92816_material.jpg “data-url =” https://news.google .com/science/definitions/physics-material-15914/”data-more=”read more”>Material which tend to perform less in winter. To deal with this problem, researchers have succeeded in developing a generally new anode battery
Symbol: CNatomic atomic number: 6 electrons per energy level: 2.4 Atomic mass: 12.011 u Most stable isotopes: 12C is stable with six… “data-image=” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/ images / midioriginal / 2/1/9 / 2198868bcb_69707_carbone.jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chimie-carbone-3873/ “data-more =”read more”>carbon It is said to be “ungraphable”. The principle remains the same, but this new material allows electron transfer to below -40 degrees Celsius.

However, this technology is valid for mobile phones but for the cars, it’s more complicated. For now, the proposition that some countries with bouts of extreme cold have found would be electric cars in parking lots to keep the engine, oil and battery warm.

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