Les IA pourront-elles dépasser les humains ? © ipopba, Adobe Stock

Westworld Season 4: Will AI someday have a conscience?

The season 4 of Westworld It’s imminent: Dolores, Charlotte, and Caleb might surprise us. Will the robot revolution ever end? We’ll find out on its release day, June 26. In the meantime, why don’t you ask a question consciousness ? Surrounding the series, in every season: from the first episode where each host seems to follow a meticulous scenario, to the final season in which humans implant their minds in synthetic objects.

Season 4 will be released on June 26 on OCS. © HBO, YouTube

How do we define consciousness?

Intelligence, consciousness, intellect, or even the living: many terms whose definitions do not reach consensus. This is one of the mysteries that has surrounded us for hundreds, even thousands of years: Where does our consciousness come from and how is it defined? Several theories depend on it, but they are mostly distinguished from conscience, and self conscious. One is geared more towards waking and thinking skills, and the other is geared towards distinguishing itself from other living beings around us: it is this self-awareness that bestows free will and moral values ​​or takes into account the world around us. One can quote famous people too Cogito ergo sum “, where I think so », from mathematician and philosopher Portrait of …” data-image = “https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/c/a/4/ca4b02bb8f_50142466_descartes-1000.jpg” data- url = “https://news.google.com/sciences/personities/mathematics-rene-descartes-203/” data-more = “Read more”>Rene Descarteswhich ascribes to thought a form of certainty in existence.

Experiments have shown that in addition to humans, other animals have self-awareness. In particular, the study showed that The elephants Part of it: They didn’t just pass the ‘Test Mirror stain”, and they end up wiping a mark drawn on their heads after looking at themselves in the mirror, but also touching the carpet. An Asian elephant was able to realize that his body was on a carpet, blocking the passage of a stick attached to the same carpet.

Science often works by mimicking nature, that is, by drawing inspiration from living things. So digitizing human consciousness is a logical step in creating an artificial intelligence that is supposed to emulate or exceed our capabilities. Futura-Sciences met with Jean-Claude Heudin, director of the research laboratory at IIM (Institute for Internet and Multimedia) in order to understand the difficulties of such an undertaking. © Futura

On the side of brain function
The brain is located in the cranial box, which is the seat of higher functions (cognitive functions, senses, neurological responses) and vegetative functions. So it is a primary device that regulates all… “data-image=” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midoriginal/5/c/b/5cb474dd85_121782_cerveau-3d .jpg “data-url=” https://news.google.com/health/definitions/biology-brain-3125/” data-more = “Read More”>brain, areas of consciousness remain untraceable for the time being. However, researchers were able to map the brains of several people Different states of consciousness : during the Sleepsthe health
Deterioration of the state of consciousness that prevents receptive and expressive communication with the surrounding environment. That state of unconsciousness from which a person cannot be awakened by verbal stimulation or… 02.jpg “data-url=” https://news.google.com/health/definitions/medicine-coma-4012/ “data-more=”read more”>coma Or when the person is awake. And they found differences in the interactions between regions: in conscious people, they are more dynamic and complex, while in unconscious people, they become simpler, occurring only between regions that are directly related to each other. As for the areas of consciousness, they will be located in brainstem The area of ​​excitability, then the role of the prefrontal cortex in depression
The prefrontal cortex is running… “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midoriginal/b/8/5/b8598f27db_50004779_cortex.jpg “data-url =” https:/// news.google.com/sante/definitions/biology-cortex-prefrontal-15736/ “data-more=”read more”>frontal cortex. The ultimate goal of finding all of these areas is to map the brain. Using a real map of cognitive functions and their location, researchers can implant the same structure into a file artificial intelligence.

Finally, theory A The quantum origin of consciousness : Objective Coordinating Reduction Theory of Consciousness, often called Orch Or Theory. The mathematician suggested it first Roger Penrose and anesthesiologist Stuart Hammeroff at the University of Arizona, attribute consciousness to quantum computations in the brain. Controversial because the brain’s warm, humid environment may be too disruptive for quantum effects to survive, it assumes electrical oscillations in microtubules, tiny structures located in the structure of neurons
Each neuron consists of:
a cell body or pericarion containing the nucleus; Many dendrites of the dendritic type (hence…”data-image=” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midoriginal/4/8/4/4845b46c32_50034180_neuron-dr.jpg” data-url =” https://news.google.com/sante/definitions/biology-neuron-209/ “data-more =”read more”>nervous cells from the brain. Currently, researchers are conducting underground experiments to find nearly undetectable radiation from these quantum fluctuations.

key in Westworld“Daydream”

But in WestworldFrom Season 1, we learn that the hosts’ consciousness is built thanks to their “daydreams”: they go through and replay events they experienced during the night, while immersed in an artificial sleep. unlike our dreamsDaydreams consist of real memories and not distorted reality, and do not contain contradictory elements. The next day, just like us, the fragments return to them, little by little they realize themselves. But daydreaming is more than that: robots Westworld, Or the hosts as they are called in the series, start hearing a voice in their mind. Arnold, one of the park’s founders, who committed suicide in an attempt to prevent it from being opened to the public, was convinced that his creations were conscious.

The underlying assumption is first that dreams are paramount in establishing awareness, not just memories, that are already implanted in families. In fact, these memories create an identity for the robot, making it more human, but they are not enough to question its existence. On the other hand, the series talks about a pyramid of consciousness, the first level of which is memory, the second, improvisation (creation that emerges from a predetermined program), and the third level, personal attention, and upstairs. It was never explained but we presumably find the famous pronoun there. For this, the character of Arnold, co-founder of the park Westworld, It is based on the bi-chamber or bi-chambered theory of the mind founded by psychologist Julian Gaines, the idea that in man’s beginnings He mistook his thoughts for divine sounds. Little by little, this double-chamber would have collapsed, at which point man would have developed a true conscience. This hypothesis was disproved, but it caused quite a stir in the 1980s.

Artificial intelligence systems are advancing more and more, will they pass the Turing Test?

But for a robot, or an AI that follows a program, the question of consciousness arises differently: How do we make sure that if it develops signs of consciousness, it is real, and not just the result of a computer program? This is the place Turing test Created by mathematician and cryptographer like von Neumann in the 1950’s, Alan Turing was a child prodigy but also an outstanding athlete who would have been selected for the marathon event at the Olympics.
We owe him, among other things, the famous Turing machine (based on the theory…”data-image=” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midoriginal/3/7/4 /374cd9a3be_50142133_turing -1000.jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/tech/personities/tech-alan-turing-248/ “data-more =”read more”>Alan Turing. We learn it in Season One: The Garden Westworld Authorized to open after passing this test. It consists in evaluating the ability of artificial intelligence to imitate a human being so perfectly that it is impossible to distinguish it from a real person. Currently, No artificial intelligence has already passed the testbut Google-owned Gato will be the closest.

Another AI from Google recently sparked controversy: an engineer claimed that laMDA AI has reached a level of consciousness similar to ours. Pour cela, il s’est appuyé sur des dialogues qu’il a entretenus avec l’IA : dans l’un d’eux, elle a affirmé avoir peur de sa désactivation, qu’elle considère comme l’équivalent de la mort chez The human. But Google claimed that all these dialogues are just improvisations on well-known topics. And that there is no trace of conscience there, the engineer has been dismissed. This isn’t the first time something like this has happened, like Ethics in AI is still under discussion.

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