Le virus de la variole du singe est un orthopoxvirus. © dottedyeti, Adobe Stock

Monkeypox: Did the eradication of smallpox pave the way for the current situation?

To try to understand why monkeypox is currently spreading outside of Africa, a continent where many countries are endemic, let’s go back a little bit in time, right after the smallpox vaccination was discontinued as populations that had been in contact with monkeypox virus were left unprotected.

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On May 8, 1980, on the occasion of the 33rd anniversarye World Health Assembly, smallpox It was officially declared extinct : ” All the peoples of the world are now free of smallpox. This is the result of a campaign vaccination Conducted by Health for 10 years: What is the World Health Organization?
As stated in its constitution, the World Health Organization aims to bring all persons to the highest standard of health… “data-image=” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/ images/midioriginal/c/0/ 3 /c0318e9153_101519_oms-logo.jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sante/definitions/medicine-oms-4321/ “data-more =”read more”>Who is theDuring which half a billion doses of smallpox were distributed worldwide. Thus, a disease known since ancient times, fatal in 30% of cases and responsible for 300 million deaths during the twentieth century, disappeared.e century.

If the eradication of smallpox is an indisputable victory, it has two negative consequences: children born after the vaccination campaign has stopped are not protected from the disease, raising fears of a bioterrorist attack; A problem that was quickly solved by the rich countries that stockpiled doses of it Vaccines In the refrigerator. The second finding relates to African countries where monkeypox is endemic, for example a medical term describing a disease or disorder that is permanently present in a particular area or in a particular group of individuals. “data-url=” https: // news. google.com/sante/definitions/medecine-endemique-2258/ “data-more=”read the definition”>endemic. The smallpox vaccine also protected the local population from the orthopoxvirus. To respond to the concerns, the World Health Organization launched a surveillance operation for monkeypox between 1981 and 1986, after which it was concluded that the disease was not a major public health problem. Thus, people who come into contact with monkeypox are left with no alternative to protect themselves from the virus.

Monkeypox explodes as immunity to smallpox decreases

The conclusion has a strange resonance with the current situation. In fact, A study published in 2010 and conducted by scientists from the school Los Angeles School of Public Health It is concluded that the thirty years after the discontinuation of smallpox vaccination, in epidemiology, the incidence refers to the number of new cases of the disease that appeared during a given time period. The increase in the infection rate makes it possible, for example, to note … cute-wiki-dp.jpg “data-url =” https://news.google.com/sante/definitions/medicine-incidence-13469/ ” data-more=”read more”>Effect The incidence of monkeypox increased by a factor of 20 in the areas monitored in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the country with the most virus active. Observational data collected between 2005 and 2007 by scientists indicate that the decrease inherd immunity Against smallpox, frequent contact with animal virus reservoirs and increased human-to-human contamination are the cause of cases. Most of those infected are young boys under the age of 15, who were born after stopping the smallpox vaccination. The scientists note in their paper: Based on our surveillance program, we observed that the risk of developing monkeypox was inversely related to the smallpox vaccine. Vaccinated people are 5.21 times less likely to get monkeypox than unvaccinated people. »

Another, more controversial theory states that the disappearance of smallpox would leave a free ecological niche, a concept whose definition according to disciplines is debated, giving the opportunity for apes to occupy it. This view is supported by University of California scientist James O. Lloyd Smith, detailed In a post published in 2013 he signs alone. he is writing : ” Therefore, eradication can lead to a quantitative increase in the occurrence of another infection, but if it does so in a figurative sense: the sudden emergence of an idea, a social, economic, political fact.
The term impression is used in many fields.
Out… “data-image =” https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midoriginal/4/e/f/4ef87a3a65_50036395_papillon-chrysalis-bernard-schmeltz.jpg “data-url=” https : //news.google.com/planete/definitions/zoologie-emergence-8743/ “data-more =”read more”>Appearance of as agent pathogenic Settlement depends on additional factors.
This theory has not yet been officially validated by any scientific data.

Link to the current situation?

The fact remains that the end of smallpox vaccination and the globalization that increased in the following years allowed for monkeypox virus to flourish and leave the African continent since 2003, Across subordinate dog From polluted lawns, and on several occasions in 2018 and 2019 before the situation we know today emerged. Monkeypox is the most common orthopoxvirus in humans. Smallpox vaccines will come out of freezers to limit the spread of the monkeypox virus and to immunize infected people and their contacts. from now on, 23 countries outside Africa are affected by human-to-human transmission of monkeypox virus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, monkeypox virus is still present and 56 people have died of the disease since the beginning of the year; Nothing in western countries yet.

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